Based on our studies, even though we detected significant differences among worker morhphotmetry we could not to find distinguishing and remarkable differences among collected samples. In a hived colony, about superfluous queen cells were observed. Majority of cups were removed by bees, however the bees accepted 2 installed cups of 5mm dia propolis cup sealed on 5th day after installation and 8mm dia propolis cups sealed on 13th day after installation. An experiment suggests that this behaviour helps to avoid predation at the nest entrance. Scree plot for finding the various components to be extracted during Principal Component Analysis among stingless bee workers. Little is known about the variations exist among them. While in newly hived colony, bees continued cleaning for 13 days and expelled out dead adult bees and 43 young bees from colony.
Biology – Zoology Swarming, drone movements, foraging b Agrarian Studies Morphological diversity, nutritional Biology – Zoology Novel and innovative techniques in Me A PCA was performed using a correlation matrix was performed on selected 16 characters which seems to be significant in the study. In the case of drones, the lowest AL is in Kannur 2.
We lovingly and gratefully indebted to our teachers, parents, siblings and friends who were there always for helping us in this project.
Conclusions Acknowledgements References Table of figures Figure 1. Stingless bees; Meliponiculture; Principal component analysis; Rotated component matrix. They may be interpreted as nutritional, seasonal and climatic factors. Introduction Despite of role in pollination and ecosystem services, honey bee population is drastically decreasing due to destruction of natural habitat, intensive agriculture, diseases and climate change et al.
Based on these back ground, our objectives of this study were to 1 to characterize the morhometric aspects of drones and worker in Trigona iridipennis Smith 2 to identify the various similarities and differences existed among based on factor and principal component analysis.
Novel aspects of nest defence in stingless bees
In a hived colony, about superfluous queen cells were observed. The components were decided using scree plot and fixed to 5 and 4 components in workers and drones respectively.
The morhometric characters of workers and drones varied widely across all the districts for workers and selected districts for drones. Eigenvalues and percentage of variance explained by the first four components in a PCA of Trigona iridipennis Smith drones in Kerala. Person correlation analysis showed considerable correlation among various morphometric characters in worker and drone bees across Kerala.
Scree plot for finding the various components to be extracted during Principal Component Analysis among stingless bee workers. Biology – Miscellaneous Nesting behavior and habitats of the Our studies revealed that most of the worker morhopometric characters were positively correlated across all the districts in Kerala.
Biology – Zoology Occurrence of a new type of stingless Even though numeric significance were shown, most of the morpometric characteristics of drones except AL and MdL were statistically non significant. The first author is extremely grateful to Dr. Description of the various habitat of Trigona iridipennis Smith drone and their characteristics.
In the case of drones, the lowest AL is in Kannur 2. Iridipennis honeythe T.
Novel aspects of nest defence in stingless bees : Sussex Research Online
The cropping pattern of the collected sites vary with a wide variety plantation crops were natural rubber dominates all the other crops Figure 2. Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, India, on the characterization and behaviour of stingless bee, Tetragonula tuesis Smith along with biochemical properties of its honey.
The lowest MdL and MdW were 0.
Chapter 2 is a comparative study of aggression in nest defence among stingless bee species, and describes a new form of nest defence, suicidal biting, which is most prevalent in the genus Trigona.
In the case of the drone bees, highly significant differences were seen only for AL and ML Figure 2 and 3.
Component plot in rotated space during principal component analysis among stingless bee drones. The first author would wish beds thank beloved Manager Rev.
Distribution of factor scores among stingless bee workers across various locations in Kerala. Sign in to write a comment. Despite of role in pollination and ecosystem services, honey beee population is drastically decreasing due to destruction of natural habitat, intensive agriculture, diseases and climate change et al. The major species of stingless bees in Kerala is Trigona iridipennis Smith which are easy to domesticate due to low temperament and easy adaption to various habitats.
Based on our studies, even though we detected significant differences among worker morhphotmetry we could not to find distinguishing and remarkable differences among collected samples. Even though numerical significance were observed in HL, PL and MdW but not able to prove their significance statistically.
Component plot in rotated space during principal component analysis among stingless bee workers in Kerala. Morphometric and geometric analysis provide a valuable sgingless for the discriminating variations among various honey bees and stingless bees Vijayakumar and Jayraj, ; Wappler et al.
George Njarakunnel, respected Principal Dr.