ANTI-FEDERALIST ESSAY BRUTUS #1 SUMMARY

This kind of government cannot be exercised, therefore, over a country of any considerable extent; it must be confined to a single city, or at least limited to such bounds as that the people can conveniently assemble, be able to debate, understand the subject submitted to them, and declare their opinion concerning it. The legislative power is competent to lay taxes, duties, imposts, and excises; — there is no limitation to this power, unless it be said that the clause which directs the use to which those taxes, and duties shall be applied, may be said to be a limitation: If this be not the case, there will be a constant clashing of opinions; and the representatives of one part will be continually striving against those of the other. For all laws made, in pursuance of this constitution, are the supreme lay of the land, and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby, any thing in the constitution or laws of the different states to the contrary notwithstanding. In the business therefore of laying and collecting taxes, the idea of confederation is totally lost, and that of one entire republic is embraced.

So, he’s saying hey, look, there’s really no precedent for this. The only mean therefore left, for any state to support its government and discharge its debts, is by direct taxation; and the United States have also power to lay and collect taxes, in any way they please. But if, on the other hand, this form of government contains principles that will lead to the subversion of liberty — if it tends to establish a despotism, or, what is worse, a tyrannic aristocracy; then, if you adopt it, this only remaining assylum for liberty will be shut up, and posterity will execrate your memory. In a republic, the manners, sentiments, and interests of the people should be similar. The laws cannot be executed in a republic, of an extent equal to that of the United States, with promptitude.

anti-federalist essay brutus #1 summary

Is it practicable for a country, so large and so numerous as they will soon become to elect a representation that will speak their sentiments without their becoming so numerous as to be incapable of transacting public business? Detail shot of the Car of History in National Statuary Hall This marble sculpture, created inis among the oldest works of art in the U.

Every one who has thought on the subject, must be convinced that but small sums of money can be collected in any country, by direct taxes[; hence,] when the federal government begins to exercise the right of taxation in all its parts, the legislatures of the several states will find it impossible to raise monies to support their governments.

He advocates for a rotation in government to avoid the problem of men serving in the Senate for life.

anti-federalist essay brutus #1 summary

This will retard the operations of government, and prevent such conclusions as will promote the public good. The command of all the troops and navy of the republic, the appointment of officers, the power of pardoning offences, the collecting of all the public revenues, and the power of expending them, with a number of other powers, must be lodged and exercised in every state, in the hands of a few.

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This will retard the operations of government, and prevent such conclusions as will promote the public good. It is as much one complete government as that of New-York or Massachusetts, has as absolute and perfect powers to make and execute all laws, to appoint officers, institute courts, declare offences, and annex penalties, with respect to every object to which it extends, as any other in the sukmary.

And if they may do it, it is pretty certain they will; for it will be found that the power retained by individual states, atni-federalist as it is, will be a clog upon the wheels of the government of the United States; the latter therefore will be naturally inclined to remove it out of the way. But they have always proved the destruction of liberty, and [are] abhorrent summarh the spirit of a free republic. In a republic of such vast extent as the United-States, the legislature cannot attend to the various concerns and wants of its different parts.

So far therefore as its powers reach, all ideas of confederation are given up and lost. And why are we surprised when the rancor and vitriol in politics gets worse and worse all the time? Every one who has thought on the subject, must be convinced that but small sums of essaay can be collected in any country, by direct taxe[s], when the foederal government begins to exercise the right of taxation in all its parts, the legislatures of the several states will find it impossible to raise monies to support their governments.

It must depend upon the support of its citizens. It is easy to see, that in the common course of things, these courts will eclipse the dignity, and take away from the respectability, of the state courts.

Brutus (Antifederalist) – Wikipedia

In every free government, the people must give their assent to the laws by which they are governed. If this be not the case, there will be a constant clashing of opinions; and the representatives esxay one part will be continually striving against those of the other.

It is true this government is limited to certain objects, or to speak more properly, some small degree of power is still left to the states, but a essay attention to the powers vested in the general government, will convince every candid man, that if it is capable of summarj executed, all that is reserved for the individual states must very soon be annihilated, except so far as they are barely necessary to the organization of the general government.

anti-federalist essay brutus #1 summary

Both of these, it is true, in process of time, extended their conquests over large territories of country; and the consequence was, that their governments were changed from that of free governments to those of the most tyrannical that ever existed in the world.

They will use the power, when they have acquired it, to the purposes of gratifying their own interest and ambition, and it is scarcely possible, in a very large republic, to call them to account for their misconduct, or to prevent their abuse of power.

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They abuse their power and soon lose the trust and respect of the citizens. Government power and individual rights: So, clearly did not think much of a pluralist democracy. In a republic of such vast extent as the United-States, the legislature cannot attend to the various concerns and wants of its brutuw parts.

Anti-federaliist must depend upon the support of its citizens. The body of the people being attached, the government will always be sufficient to support and execute its laws, and to operate upon the fears of beutus faction which may be opposed to it, not only to prevent an opposition to the execution of the laws themselves, but also to compel the most of them to aid the magistrate; but the people will not be likely to have such confidence in their rulers, in a republic so extensive as the United States, as necessary for these purposes.

Anti-Federalists and Brutus No. 1

His series are considered among the best of those written to oppose adoption of the proposed constitution. Video transcript – [Instructor] When we first learn about American history it sometimes seems like it might have been a very easy or somewhat obvious transition from the Articles of Confederation to the Constitution but it was not. The productions of the different parts of the union are very variant, and their interests, of consequence, diverse.

The question then will be, whether a government thus constituted, and founded on such principles, is practicable, and can be exercised over the whole United States, reduced into one state? The productions of the different parts of the union are very variant, and their interests, of consequence, diverse. This central government has so much power that it kind of makes the states a little bit irrelevant because they can’t do something outside of what the central government thinks they should so, so then having established this argument and once again, this is just an excerpt, I encourage you to read all of Brutus I, it’s quite fascinating, the author then argues why this is a bad idea to have this takeover and have 13 sovereign states turned into essentially one.

One inferior court must be established, I presume, in each state, at least, with the necessary executive officers appendant thereto. If the constitution, offered to your acceptance, be a wise one, calculated to preserve the invaluable blessings of liberty, to secure the inestimable rights of mankind, and promote human happiness, then, if you accept it, you will lay a lasting foundation of happiness for millions yet unborn; generations to come will rise up and call you blessed.